Appendix C
Additional methodology

 
     

Ethnicity

Information on maternal ethnicity has been collected in England as part of the delivery record of the Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES) since 1995. Data collection of maternal ethnicity remains incomplete with 75% of all birth records having a stated ethnicity for the period 2003–04.4 Comparison of deliveries recorded on HES and Census information for women with children under 1 year of age suggests that if deliveries with ethnic group not stated are included with those where ethnic group is stated to be White the distribution of deliveries in HES broadly approximates that expected from Census information. Accordingly, for 2003–04 the distribution of ethnicity of maternities in England was approximately as follows: White 79.3%, Black (aggregate of Black African, Black Caribbean and Black Other) 4.3%, Asian (aggregate of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi) 8.1%, Chinese and other (Chinese, Other and mixed ethnic origin) 3.3% and Not known 5% (personal communication, Hospital Episodes Statistics).

Applying these proportions to the total number of live births in England for 2004 gives an estimated distribution of live births as shown in Table 5 of the main report.

 
 

 

 

Deprivation

Deprivation was based on the application of an Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) score.7 This is based on the postcode of residence and the corresponding Super Output Area (SOA) as defined by the ONS. These IMD scores were ranked and quintiles of deprivation derived for the national population of England. Cases were then placed into the appropriate quintile of deprivation. As these scores are based on the mothers, not babies, for pregnancies with multiple losses only the first death was assigned a deprivation score to avoid double counting. The distribution of deprivation scores into quintiles is based on the entire population of England rather than the maternity population.